Br Poult Sci. Jul;44(3) The effect of chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaf meal and of exogenous enzymes on amino acid digestibility in broilers. Abstract. Aims: This study focused on the possible protective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract (CA) against hepatic damage. Introduction: Male fertility is controlled by a complex assortment of pituitary- gonadal hormones. This regulation is key to understanding.

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Adaramoye, Adekunbi Aluko, Ademola A. This study focused on the possible protective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaf extract CA against hepatic damage induced by chronic ethanol administration in rats.

Male Wistar rats were distributed into seven groups of six rats each.

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius — Wikipédia

KV served as the reference antioxidant. The activities of CA were comparable with KV in the ethanol-treated rats. This observation was supported by histopathological examination of liver slides. These findings suggest the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of CA leaf extract, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity.

Alcohol is one of the oldest drugs that humans have used since the beginning of civilization. High alcohol consumption results in critical problems in the body including alcohol liver diseases ALDs Pari and Karthikesan, Many pathways are thought to be involved in ALD, including oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage Stewart et al.

Reactive oxygen species ROS are continuously produced in biological system by the action of mitochondrial electron transport system and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase Cadenas et al. This holds true for the production of superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals Koch et al. These ROS are cellular renegades, and can wreak havoc in biological system by tissues damage, altering biochemical compounds, corroding cell membranes and killing out rightly Wiseman and Halliwell, Therefore, an important intervention to counteract the oxidative challenges against liver during chronic alcohol consumption is to reinforce endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms Koch et al.

Recently, herbs have attracted attention as health-beneficial foods physiologically functional foods and as source materials for drug development. Herbal medicines derived from plant extracts are being utilized increasingly to treat a wide variety of clinical diseases, although relatively little is known regarding their modes of action. Studies have shown that commonly consumed medicinal plants are good sources of polyphenols, saponins, flavonoids and phenyl propanoids, which are active in vivo antioxidants and may boost the endogenous antioxidant defense system Koch et al.

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius is a drought deciduous cnifoscolus that is mainly cultivated for food because of its important medicinal value. A wide variety of the folkloric use of this herb in ethno medicine includes treatment for alcoholism, insomnia, gout, scorpion stings and as cure for brain and vision improvement Atuahene et al. Basic research involving animal models have shown that this herb attenuates renal dysfunction caused by ethanol toxicity, and also exhibits insulinogenic property in inbred type-2 diabetic mice, cnidoscllus it elicits hepatoprotective activity in rats intoxicated with mega dose of paracetamol Oladeinde et al.

In view of the reputed efficacies of this vegetable plant, this present work studied its aconitlfolius protective effects against hepatic damage induced by chronic ethanol administration in Wistar albino rats. Absolute ethanol and hydrogen peroxide were procured from Sigma Chemical Co.

Other reagents were of analytical grade and purest quality available. They were maintained on normal laboratory chow Ladokun Feeds, Ibadan, Nigeria and water ad libitum.

Rats aconiticolius and treatments conform to the guidelines of the National Institute of Health NIH publicationfor cnidoscols animal care and use. Fresh leaves from C. The botanical identification was carried out at the herbarium in the Department of Botany, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, where a voucher specimen already exists.

The resulting residue called C. The yield of the preparation was Prior to the experiments, CA was dissolved in corn oil overnight and was administered to the animals according to their weights.


Cnidoscolus aconitifolius – Useful Tropical Plants

Forty-two male albino rats Wistar strain were randomly distributed into seven groups of six animals each. Animals were given a period of 2 weeks for acclimatization before the experiment.

The first group served as the control and was given corn oil Vehicle for drugs. All drugs were administered daily to the animals by oral gavage. Liver samples were quickly removed and washed in ice-cold 1. The antioxidant status of the animals was investigated in the PMF. The clear supernatant was used for the estimation of serum enzymes and lipid profile of the animals. Serum and liver protein levels were determined according to the method of Lowry et al. The estimation of serum alkaline phosphatase ALP activity was based on the method of King and Armstrong Serum triglyceride TG and cholesterol levels were assayed using commercial diagnostic kits Randox.

For the determination of high-density lipoprotein HDL level, very low-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein LDL lipoproteins were precipitated by addition of phosphotungstic acid and magnesium chloride.

After centrifugation, the supernatant containing the HDL fraction was assayed for cholesterol using Randox diagnostic kit.

The phytochemical screening of CA revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds in the plant.

Cnidoscolus aconitifolius

Seven bioactive constituents were tested, out of which four tested positive in CA. The effect of C. Et, ethanol; CA1, C. Et, ethanol, CA1, C. The slides of control animals showed normal architecture without any visible lesions. The impaired biochemical function induced by acpnitifolius ethanol administration was also confirmed by microscopic examination of the liver from ethanol-treated rats.

Liver injury caused by chronic ethanol administration includes marked hepatic necrosis, severe portal and central venous congestion, with multifocal cnidoscolhs cellular infiltration.

Similarly, slides from rats treated with CA or KV alone shared similar histopathological appearance with the control. Representative photomicrographs of liver slides from rats that served as control, ethanol-treated, ethanol-treated with KV or CA. It is obvious that chronic ethanol administration produced liver toxicity in rats, which was monitored by both biochemical and histopathological parameters.

Numerous studies indicate that free radicals such as hydroxyl-ethyl radical, superoxide and hydroxy radicals are responsible for ethanol-induced oxidative stress Hoak and Pastorino, All these radicals formed from ethanol-mediated process have a great potential to react rapidly with lipids, which in turn leads to lipid peroxidation.

It is established that AST can be found in the liver, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle, kidney, brain, pancreas, lungs, leukocytes and erythrocytes, whereas ALT is predominantly present in the liver Rej, In our study, we found that chronic ethanol consumption caused a significant increase in aconitifoliis activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, which could be as a result of severe damage to the hepatocytes of ethanol-treated animals, thereby causing these enzymes to leak into the plasma.

This observation is supported by the recent report of Oyagbemi and Odetolawhich showed that CA has protective effect against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats. GSH acts as a free radical scavenger and cnidodcolus of alpha-tocopherol and plays a significant role in sustaining protein sulfhydryl groups Glantzounis et al.

GSH is the main antioxidant found in liver cells and plays a protective role in the metabolism of a large number of toxic agents, including ethanol. Many studies assessing the status of hepatic GSH in response to ethanol exposure have shown that both acute and chronic exposure to cnidoscolu cause time-dependent and dose-dependent aconitifolijs in hepatic GSH contents Song et al.

Enhanced ethanol toxicity has been associated with decreased hepatic GSH, which may reflect the depletion of GSH by the overproduction of ROS and subsequent oxidative stress caused by ethanol Khanal et al. The result from our study is in line with previous studies that ethanol toxicity caused depletion of hepatic GSH. These findings further suggest that the hepatoprotective effect of CA or KV against ethanol is related to the increase in cellular GSH content.

In addition, our results showed that CA or KV significantly prevented ethanol-induced elevation of inflammatory infiltrates in histopathological analysis. These anti-inflammatory effects of CA or KV may play an important role in protecting the animals against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity. Lipid peroxidation is accepted as one of the principal causes of ethanol-induced liver injury mediated by the production of free radical derivatives.

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Chronic and acute ethanol administration has been studied in both animal models and human clinical trials to assess relationship between oxidative stress and hepatic lipid peroxidation Zhou et al. In agreement with these findings, our results show increased levels of MDA in the serum and liver of alcoholic rats when compared with controls.

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On the other hand, treatment with CA or KV caused a significant decline in the levels of lipid peroxidation products. This protective effect is probably based on the antioxidant activity of CA or KV, which reduced the oxidative damage by blocking the production of free radicals, and thus inhibited lipid peroxidation.

In this study, we also observed a significant decrease in the activities of free radical scavenging enzymes; SOD and CAT, which are the first line of defense against oxidative injury. This is not strange, since ethanol oxidation by CYP2E1 produces 1-hydroxy ethyl radicals, which have been shown to inactivate several proteins including antioxidant enzyme system Epstein, The inhibition of antioxidant system may cause the accumulation of H 2 O 2 or products of its aconitioflius Halliwell, Cniroscolus catalyzes the conversion of superoxide anion into H 2 O 2.

CA has been reported to act as an effective antioxidant of great importance against diseases and degenerative processes caused by oxidative stress. The antioxidant property of CA has been linked to the presence of polyphenols, especially flavonoids Kuti and Konuru, From these findings, it can be inferred that CA positively modulates the antioxidant status and regenerates the liver to near normal in ethanol-treated rats.

Lipids are a heterogenous group containing active metabolic substances that play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. Ethanol is a powerful indicator of aconotifolius in both animals and humans Avogaro and Cazzolato, The most common lipid abnormalities during chronic alcohol consumption are hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia Baraona et al. The increased cholesterol level during alcohol ingestion is attributed to the increased alpha-hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase activity, which is the rate limiting step in cholesterol biosynthesis Ashakumari and Vijyammal, aocnitifolius Fatty liver results mainly from the accumulation of TG Cunname, Increased TG levels after ethanol ingestion may be due to the increased availability of free fatty acid, glycerophosphates, decreased TG lipase activity and decreased fatty oxidation.

In the present study, hypertriglyceridemia was confirmed in the serum of ethanol-treated rats. From the above-mentioned observations, we found that supplementation of CA or KV restored the lipid levels of ethanol-treated rats to near normal, which may help reduce the incidence of fatty liver associated with ethanol administration. In conclusion, supplementation of CA exerts a significant protective effect against hepatic damage induced by chronic ethanol administration in the rats.

The protective effect of the extract may be attributed to the active components such as saponins and flavonoids, which elicit antioxidant and detoxifying effects.

Therefore, a dietary intake of C. Further studies are warranted to isolate the active component in this leaf that is responsible for the observed effect. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University’s objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Phytochemical constituents of C. View large Download slide.

Methanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius attenuates renal dysfunction induced by chronic ethanol aconififolius in Wistar rats. Possible anti-atherogenic effect of kolaviron a Garcinia kola seed extract in hypercholesterolaemic rats. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity.