This study attempts to give as complete as possible a description of two extinct Saivite sects-the Kapalikas and the Kalamukhas. Since the connotations of the. Kapalika and Kalamukha, members of either of two groups of Shaivite (devotees of Shiva) ascetics, most prominent in India from the 8th through the 13th century. Kapalikas, Kalamukhas. Identifier TheKapalikasAndKalamukhasTwoLostSaiviteSectsDLorenzenDelhi Identifier-ark ark://t23b9rp
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Furthermore, however great the learning of the Kodiya-matha priests, the essential featurfe of their faith seems to be personal devotion or bhakti to Siva rather than metaphysical speculation or a religion of sacrifice and ritual observance.
Sastri, The Colas, p. Shiva became angered by the actions of the gods and assumed annd form of 24 Kapalikas in order kalamukuas battle the avatars. He told his new assistant to perform the same worship every day in the same spot while saying: This statement is based on the absence of any mention of the temple in a record dated in this year ed. Similar ex- planations are given in the Padma and Bhagavata Purdtms.
We do not know from which edition of the Parana this reference comes. Kapaliksa, the conditions set for this form of penance bear a striking resemblance to the prototypical Kapalika, who is described as having lived in forests, wearing animal skins and carrying skulls. Handiqui points out p. Even the name, if not the location, of the sacred tirtha is the same. Xnd you for your feedback.
It is likely that there was an actual migra- tion of Lakulisa devotees to the Karnataka region from various parts of north-western India. Being intent upon the Self alone, however, is a state difficult to obtain.
Suru, Act t, after vs. The sources in which the myth first appears, the Purgqas, also mention human Kapalikas, and malamukhas are no references to the ascetics significantly earlier than these works.
Kapalika and Kalamukha | Hindu ascetics |
These accusations have some factual basis. An ordinary farmer or merchant might have called himself a Buddhist, Jain, Vaisnava, or Saivite, but probably not a Kapaaka, Kalamukha or Pasupata. It is this vow, I believe, that provides the key to a proper under- standing of many of their unorthodox ascetic practices. Dasgupta, Obscure Religious Cults, pp.
The Kapalika Ugra-Bhairava laments to Saipkara that ‘the skull of an anointed king kalmukhas a adn of munis is the prerequisite for my siddhi. This school, Tucci believes, should be transcribed in Sanskrit as Nydyasauma or Nayasaumya and is the same as Somasiddhanta. The eighth, Saiphara-Bhairava, is Kaalikas himself. This article began as an original kwlamukhas prepared for New World Encyclopedia and is provided to the public according to the terms of the New World Encyclopedia: The myth occurs in a number of the major Puranas, but their accounts vary considerably.
The archetypal basis of the ritual is delineated most succinctly in the traditional etymology for the term Somasiddhanta— the doctrine of Soma Siva united with Uma Umayd sahitah Somas tasya siddhdntah The human participants of the ritual mentally identify themselves with Siva and Sakti respectively. The MOvara-koneya-samtati The Muvara-koneya-saiptati of the Parvatavali had its head- quarters at Belagave, but its control extended to about five additional sites in the surrounding region.
There is little doubt, therefore, that the Kapalikas were a Saivite sect. Their portraits must be drawn from accounts by their opponents and, in the case of the Kalamukhas, from the information contained in epigraphic grants to their temples.
Nonetheless, for many years scholars such as R. The Kalamukha were a medieval Shaivite sect of the Deccan Plateau who were among the first professional monks kalajukhas India. Those who wear skull gar- lands, as Beal suggests, may well be Kapalikas. The discovery of xnd or three inscriptions from what must have been Kapalika temples at least guarantees their existence.
The Kapalikas And Kalamukhas Two Lost Saivite Sects D Lorenzen Delhi 1991
The Pdrsvandtha-carita, composed by Vadiraja in a. In succeeding centuries this story was gradually elaborated until the original antagonists became a vast army of warlike monks modelled in part either on the Kalamukha monastic orders Madhava or on the newly emerging military orders of medieval India Anandagiri. Translations from Sanskrit are my own unless otherwise specified. The dramas provide some important additional information about the geographical distribution of the Kapalikas. A grant of a.
The same paper, Oct.
While the body was widely underappreciated in many other religious faiths, the Kapalikas and Kalamukhas seem to have identified it as a means to a spiritual end.
Barring historical kapalikaw, it must be assumed that the Sakti-parisad was the more important of the two groups. As in the accounts of Yamunacarya and Ramanuja, the confusion between the two sects may have been intentional. Kane, Part I, text p Nonetheless, the assertion that the Kapalikas were hedonists and that they justified this hedonism with a thoroughly materialistic philosophy cannot be accepted. What was this Mahavrata? The religious information that they do contain tends to discredit rather than corroborate Yamunacarya and Ramanuja.
The best known rite by this name takes place during the last day but one in a sattra and is described in the JaiminJya Brdhmana and a few other early works.