KELAS POLYCHAETA PDF

Kelas Kelas Polychaeta Kelas Clitellata Kelas Myzostomida Kelas Archiannelida Kelas Oligochaeta Kelas Hirudinea Annelida adalah filum luas yang terdiri dari. Annelida dibagi menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu Polychaeta (cacing berambut banyak), Oligochaeta (cacing berambut sedikit), dan Hirudinea. In order to determine seasonal trends of Polychaeta fauna associated with Cystoseira (C. barbata and C. crinita) facies along the Sinop Peninsula (Black Sea).

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Berbeda dengan Platyhelminthes dan Nemathelminthes, Annelida merupakan hewan tripoblastik yang sudah memiliki rongga tubuh sejati hewan selomata. Namun Annelida merupakan hewan yang struktur tubuhnya paling sederhana. Ciri tubuh Ciri tubuh annelida meliputi ukuran, bentuk, struktur, dan fungsi tubuh. Ukuran dan bentuk tubuh Annelida memiliki panjang tubuh sekitar 1 mm hingga 3 m. Contoh annelida yang panjangnya 3 m adalah cacing tanah Australia.

Bentuk tubuhnya simetris bilateral dan bersegmen menyerupai cincin. Struktur dan fungsi tubuh Annelida memiliki segmen di bagian luar dan dalam tubuhnya. Antara satu segmen dengan segmen lainya terdapat sekat yang disebut septa. Pembuluh darah, sistem ekskresi, dan sistem saraf di antara satu segmen dengan segmen lainnya saling berhubungan menembus septa. Rongga tubuh Annelida berisi cairan yang berperan dalam pergerakkan annelida dan sekaligus melibatkan kontraksi otot.

Ototnya terdiri dari otot melingkar sirkuler dan otot memanjang longitudinal. Sistem pencernaan annelida sudah lengkap, terdiri dari mulut, faring, esofagus kerongkonganusus, dan anus. Cacing ini sudah memiliki pembuluh darah sehingga memiliki sistem peredaran darah tertutup.

Darahnya mengandung hemoglobin, sehingga berwarna merah. Pembuluh darah yang melingkari esofagus berfungsi memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh. Sistem saraf annelida adalah sistem saraf tangga tali. Ganglia otak terletak di depan faring pada anterior.

Polychaete

Ekskresi dilakukan oleh organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari nefridia, nefrostom, dan nefrotor. Nefridia tunggal – nefridium merupaka organ ekskresi yang terdiri dari saluran.

Nefrostom merupakan corong bersilia dalam tubuh. Nefrotor merupaka npori permukaan tubuh tempat kotoran keluar. Terdapat sepasang organ ekskresi tiap segmen tubuhnya. Cara hidup dan habitat Sebagian besar annelida hidup dengan bebas dan ada sebagian yang parasit dengan menempel pada vertebrata, termasuk manusia.

Habitat annelida umumnya berada di dasar laut dan perairan tawar, dan juga ada yang segaian hidup di tanah atau tempat-tempat lembap. Annelida hidup diberbagai tempat dengan membuat liang sendiri. Reproduksi Annelida umumnya bereproduksi secara seksual dengan pembantukan gamet.

Namun ada juga yang bereproduksi secara fregmentasi, yang kemudian beregenerasi. Organ seksual polychweta ada yang menjadi satu dengan individu hermafrodit dan ada yang terpisah pada individu lain gonokoris. Klasifikasi Annelida dibagi menjadi tiga kelas, yaitu Polychaeta cacing berambut banyakOligochaeta cacing berambut kekasdan Hirudinea. Tubuh Polychaeta dibedakan menjadi daerah kepala prostomium dengan mata, antena, dan sensor palpus.

Fungsi parapodia adalah sebagai alat gerak dan mengandung pembuluh darah halus sehingga dapat berfungsi juga seperti insang untuk bernapas. Setiap parapodium memiliki rambut kaku yang disebut seta yang tersusun dari kitin. Contoh Polychaeta yang sesil adalah cacing kipas Sabellastarte indica yang berwarna cerah. Sedangkan yang bergerak bebas adalah Nereis virens, Marphysa sanguinea, Eunice viridis cacing palolodan Lysidice oele cacing wawo.

Oligochaeta tidak memiliki parapodia, namun memiliki seta pada tubuhnya yang bersegmen. Contoh Oligochaeta yang paling terkenal adalah cacing tanah. Jenis cacing tanah antara lain adalah cacing tanah Amerika Lumbricus terrestriscacing tanah Asia Kkelascacing merah Tubifexdan cacing tanah raksasa Australia Digaster longmani.

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Cacing ini memakan oarganisme hidup yang ada di dalam tanah dengan cara menggali tanah.

Kemampuannya yang dapat menggali bermanfaat dalam menggemburkan tanah. Manfaat lain dari cacing ini adalah digunakan untuk bahan kosmetik, obat, dan campuran makan berprotein tinggi bagi hewan ternak. Hirudinea Hirudinea merupakan kelas annelida yang jenisnya pokychaeta. Hewan ini tidak memiliki arapodium maupun seta pada segmen tubuhnya. Panjang Hirudinea bervariasi dari 1 – 30 cm. Tubuhnya pipih dengan ujung anterior dan posterior yang meruncing. Pada anterior dan posterior terdapat alat pengisap yang digunakan untuk menempel dan bergerak.

Sebagian besar Hirudinea adalah hewan ektoparasit pada permukaan polychaetw inangnya. Inangnya adalah vertebrata dan termasuk oelas.

Hirudinea parasit hidup denga mengisap darah inangnya, ielas Hirudinea bebas hidup dengan memangsa invertebrata kecil seperti siput. Contoh Hirudinea parasit adalah Haemadipsa pacet dan hirudo lintah. Saat merobek atau membuat lubang, lintah mengeluarkan zat anestetik penghilang sakitpolychafta korbannya tidak akan menyadari adanya krlas.

Setelah ada lubang, lintah akan mengeluarkan zat anti pembekuan darah yaitu hirudin. Dengan zat tersebut lintah dapat mengisap darah sebanyak mungkin. Annelida Lamarck Class Clitellata see below Oligochaeta – earthwormsetc. The annelidscollectively called Annelida from Latin anellus “little ring”are a large phylum of animals comprising the segmented wormswith about 15, modern species including the well-known earthworms and leeches.

They are found in most wet polcyhaeta, and include many terrestrialfreshwaterand especially marine species such as the polychaetesas well as some which are parasitic or mutualistic. They range in length from under a millimeter to over 3 meters the seep tube worm Lamellibrachia luymesi. Annelids are bilaterally symmetric and triploblastic protostomes with a coelom which makes them coelomatesclosed circulatory system and true segmentation.

Their segmented bodies and coelom have given them evolutionary advantages over other worms. Oligochaetes and polychaetes typically have spacious coeloms ;olychaeta in leeches, the coelom is filled in with tissue and reduced to a system of narrow canals; archiannelids may lack the coelom entirely. The coelom is divided into a sequence of compartments by walls called septa. In the most general forms each compartment corresponds to a triple segment of the body, which also includes a portion of the nervous and closed circulatory systems, allowing it to function relatively independently.

The closed circulatory system consists of networks of vessels containing blood with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin. Dorsal and ventral vessels are connected by segmental pairs of vessels.

The dorsal vessel and five pairs of vessels that circle the esophagus of an earthworm are muscular and pump blood through the circulatory system. Tiny blood vessels are abundant in the earthworm’s skin, which function as its respiratory organ.

Each segment metamere is polychawta externally by one or more rings, called annuli. Each segment also has an outer layer of circular muscle underneath a thin cuticle and epidermisand a system of longitudinal muscles.

inggil: phylum annelida

In earthworms and in daria the longitudinal muscles are strengthened by collagenous lamellae; the leeches have a double layer of muscles between the outer circulars lelas inner longitudinals.

In most forms they also carry a varying number of bristles, called setaeand among the polychaetes a pair of appendages, called parapodia. Anterior to the true segments lies the prostomium and peristomium, which carries the mouthand posterior to poolychaeta lies the pygidium, where the anus is located. The digestive tract is quite variable but is usually specialized.

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For example, in some groups notably most earthworms it has a typhlosole to increase surface area along much of its plychaeta. Different species of annelids have a wide variety of diets, including active and passive hunters, scavengersfilter feedersdirect deposit feeders which simply ingest the sediments, and blood-suckers.

Annelids can also grow up to six inches. The vascular system and the nervous system are separate from the digestive tract. The vascular system includes a dorsal vessel conveying the blood toward the front of the worm, and a ventral longitudinal vessel which conveys the blood in the opposite direction. The two systems are connected by a vascular sinus and by lateral vessels of various kinds, including in the true earthworms, capillaries on the body wall.

The nervous system has a nerve cord from which lateral nerves come in contact with each segment. Every segment has an autonomy; however, they unite to perform as a single body for functions such as locomotion.

Growth in many groups occurs by replication of individual segmental units, in others the number of ke,as is fixed in early development. Asexual reproduction by fission is a method used by some annelids and allows them to reproduce quickly. The posterior part of the pllychaeta breaks off and forms a new identical worm. The position of the break is usually determined by an epidermal growth.

Lumbriculus and Aulophorusfor example, are known to reproduce by the penis breaking into such fragments. This complete regeneration is noteworthy as these Annelid species are the most highly organized animals to have this capability. Sexual reproduction allows a species to better adapt to its environment.

Some annelida species are hermaphroditicwhile others have distinct sexes. Most polychaete worms are gonochoristic, that is, they have separate males and females and external fertilization.

The earliest larval stage, which is lost in some groups, is a ciliated trochophoresimilar to those found in other phyla. The animal then begins to develop its segments, one after another, until it reaches its adult size. Earthworms and other oligochaetesas well as the leechesare hermaphroditic and mate periodically throughout the year in favored environmental conditions.

They mate by copulation. Two worms which are attracted by each other’s secretions lay their bodies together with their heads pointing opposite directions. The fluid is transferred from the male pore to the other worm.

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Different methods of sperm transference have been observed in different genera, and may involve internal spermathecae sperm storing chambers or spermatophores that are attached to the outside of the other worm’s body. The clitella lack the free-living ciliated trochophore larvae present in the polychaetes, the embryonic worms developing in a fluid-filled “cocoon” secreted by the clitellum. The annelid fossil record is sparse, but a few definite forms are known as early as the Cambrian – or perhaps even before.

However, a few annelids, such as the living polychaetes in the Serpulidaesecrete calcareous tubes, and such tubes are fairly common as fossils although these are not necessarily from annelida, as other animal phyla can also secrete tubes.